Project Background

IPCC Assessment

In its Sixth Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods are necessary to limit global warming to 1.5°C, with the stipulation that that CDR solutions should not serve as a substitute for continued mitigation efforts – CDR and mitigation should occur in tandem.

CDR can be used to achieve net-negative greenhouse gas emissions, especially in carbon-intensive sectors such as industry, agriculture and long-distance transportation. However, there is an absence of agreed high-quality standards on CDR which has resulted in CDR technologies having adverse side-effects on local ecosystems, biodiversity and communities.

For this reason, the IPCC has highlighted the importance of reliable monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) to advance the necessary deployment of CDR technologies.

CDR Market Foundation

The C-SINK project aims to establish robust MRV pre-standards and policy strategies to lay the foundations for a standardized, responsible and transparent European CDR market. C-SINK will provide a holistic and unbiased understanding of CDR technologies, through a comprehensive evaluation of not only the technological aspects of CDR, but also environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria relevant to CDR.

C-SINK Consortium

The C-SINK Consortium will undertake extensive scientific assessments of 7 CDR approaches, including their potential uptake of CO2 (or particulate carbon in the case of biochar), and a comprehensive evaluation of their impact on ecosystems and society.


CDR Technologies


The use of various scientific and technological approaches and equipment to produce and manage forested areas where they did not previously exist.


Carbon mitigation technology that combines the use of biomass for energy production with the capture and storage of (CO2) emissions generated during the process. Find out more.


Exploring biochar’s capacity to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in a stable form for extended periods, effectively reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

Biochar with CCS

Integration of biochar production with the capture and storage of CO2 emissions.

Enhanced weathering of waste rocks

Acceleration of the natural process of rock weathering, which includes absorption of CO2 due to the chemical reactions that occur to rocks when exposed to the atmosphere and subjected to weathering, to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere.

Artificial Soil

Tailor-made artificial soils can sequester carbon from CO2 in both organic and inorganic form, and stock large amounts over time.

Biological Carbon Fixation

Living organisms (plants and certain microorganisms) absorb and convert CO2 into organic matter through photosynthesis and other biochemical pathways. Find out more.

The CO2 Removal Helix

To facilitate mutual learning, C-SINK will also establish a virtual community, known as the CO2 Removal Helix, of more than 150 organizations. This will be an engine for clustering activities and dialogues on regulation and policy. Direct engagement with stakeholders will be complemented by tailored dissemination and communication activities aimed to enhance knowledge on CDR technologies, raise awareness among the general public and support EU policies related to CDR approaches.